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农民工养老保险制度运作的困境及其理论诠释

时间:2006-11-24 14:27:09 访问次数:108

摘 要:目前,我国农民工养老保险制度的改革大体有三种类型,即扩面型、仿域形、综合保险型。但从实践效果看,三种类型均存在覆盖面小、参保率低的问题。从操作层面看,面临的主要困境是政府供给制度的积极行为和企业与农民工对养老保险持“双冷”态度的不统一;从理论层面看,根本原因则是现行养老保险制度下农民工群体的特殊性与养老保险的固有属性之间存在着一系列矛盾。而这些问题与矛盾的化解,有待于从政策、技术及管理等方面进一步完善。[著者文摘]

关键词:养老保险 农民工 社会保障 操作困境 理论原因

分类号: F323.89 G842.67[免标]文献标识码:A文章编号:1008-942X(2006)03-0108-09相关文献:主题相关

The Social Endowment Insurance System for Peasant-Workers: Dilemma and Theoretical AnalysisCenter of Agricultural YANG Cui-ying, GUO Jin-feng and Rural Development, 2. Teaching Research Section of Business Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China; Party School of Jiangxi , Nanchang 330003, China)Abstract:The social endowment insurance system for peasant-workers (SEISPW), which should play its role in ensuring numerous Chinese peasant-workers pension after their retirement, is operational in three different modes adopted in Guangdong and Shenzhen, Beijing, and Shanghai respectively. However, the practice of these three modes is far from being ideal. Limited coverage and low attendance are the main common problems. Operationally, these problems are caused by the conflicting attitudes adopted by the government and by enterprises and peasant-workers: the former is active, while the latter are passive. Specifically, the government has paid more attention to the SEISPW, given the different needs to cultivate labor market, to maintain social stability, and to solve the problems about agriculture, rural areas and farmers. On the contrary, enterprises think that social security is not good for increasing their competitiveness which, coupled with the pitfalls in the social security management and prevalent local protectionism, has discouraged them from showing an active attitude towards the SEISPW. Meanwhile, due to numerous factors affecting the solving of contradictions between moveable employment of peasant-workers and stable requirement for endowment insurance, peasant-workers do not show much interest in the SEISPW established by the government for them. In other words, the dilemma can be summed up as follows: firstly, insurance premium should be paid regularly while peasant-workers usually do not have lifetime occupation, and often change their jobs or cities where they work, or both. Secondly, the supply of a large amount of premium seems to be impossible. Thirdly, it is hard for peasant-workers to transfer insurance since there is much difference in coverage and premium ratio in different localities. Fourthly, peasant-workers' benefits gained from social securities could be both retained and "disappear" partly, because the endowment insurance at present is operated in a relatively closed environment. Fifthly, absence of effective computerized information system makes it even more difficult to coordinate different insurance institutions. To resolve the above-mentioned dilemma, it is necessary to establish the SEISPW in the long run and carry it out in a safe and steady way.So, to break down the institutional and conceptual barriers is the first thing to do. At the same time, to perfect both the basic social pension insurance for employees (BSPIE) and the rural social pension insurance (RSPI) is the basis on which to transfer insurance for peasant-workers. Secondly, it is necessary to reform the SEISPW in accounts management, pension allocating, etc. , by taking account of moveable employment and low income, which characterize peasantworkers. And last, to create a good social environment will contribute a great deal to the implementation of SEISPW, such as coordinating insurance management in urban and rural areas, strengthening the information system and enforcing the law.[著者文摘]

Key words:endowment insurance;peasant-worker,social security;operational dilemrna;theoretical reasons

收稿日期: 2005-10-19修订日期: 基金资助:国家自然科学基金资助项目(70473079);国家社会科学基金重大项目(04ZD012)
作者简介:杨翠迎(1967-),女,陕西周至人,浙江大学农业现代化与农村发展研究中心副教授。博士。主要从事农村社会保障问题的研究 郭金丰(1976-)。女,江西赣州人。中共江西省委党校工商管理教研部副教授,博士,主要从事农民工社会保障问题的研究。